State Quality Control Laboratory.

The State of Tripura had Testing Laboratory since 1971, in a very limited capacity to conduct tests on various construction materials so as to look into the quality aspect of construction. To enhance the scope of its functioning a Joint Venture with the CSIR-NEIST, Jorhat was initiated in the year 2008. As a part of the same, few equipments were received from CSIR-NEIST, Jorhat in 2008 and subsequently, the testing laboratory was inaugurated as State Quality Control Laboratory on 6th Sept 2008 by Hon’ble Minister for PWD, Finance etc Department in presence of the Director, CSIR-NEIST, Jorhat.

At present testing facilities available at this Tripura State Testing Laboratory (at Pragati Road, Agartala) include the followings:-

CUBE :

Compressive strength

BRICK :

Compressive Strength; Water Absorption; Efflorescence;  Dimension

Aggregate : (stone & brick)

 Sieve Analysis; Impact; Abrasion; Crushing Value; Water Absorption; Specific Gravity

 

Sand:

Sieve Analysis, Uniformity co-efficient, Effective Size; Fineness Modulus; Specific Gravity; Silt & clay content [Chemical analysis is not done at this lab at present]

Cement :

Consistency, Initial & Final setting time; Specific Gravity; Fineness test (By sieving method only); Soundness Test; Compressive Strength

[Chemical analysis is not done at this lab at present]

DWS items ( like Anthracite, Gravel, Pea gravel, MNO2 etc)

 Sieving, Uniformity co-efficient, Specific Gravity; Porosity Test of Pea gravel

[Chemical analysis is not done at this lab at present]

Soil:

Atterberg’s Limit; Natural Moisture content; Bulk & Dry Density, Proctor compaction test; Dry & Soaked CBR test

Concrete Mix Design

Mix design of Concrete M25 &  M30

 

List of Tests Conducted at Field by the Tripura State Testing Laboratory (at Pragati Road, Agartala) as follows

Soil

Field Compaction (Degree of Compaction) by Core cutter or by Sand Replacement method and Moisture Meter.

Road pavement

Thickness of Different layers; Volumetric analysis; Gradation analysis of aggregates;  Bitumen Content; Mixing, Laying & Rolling Temperature of Bitumen; Super elevation; Camber; Surface Regularities

 

Criteria for sending sample for conducting test at TSTL, Agartala

Cube: Minimum 3 Cube (Sample) (with Identifying Mark, Date of casting, Grade), in properly sealed condition.

Brick: Minimum 5 bricks (with identification BRAND engraved) in Properly Sealed condition.

Cement: At least one bag of Cement of unbroken bag in fresh condition identifying Brand, Date/month of Manufacturing,

Aggregate (Stone & Brick)At least 15 kg for 10 & 20 mm nominal size and 20 kg for 40 mm nominal size in Properly          Sealed condition

Sand: At least 10 kg of sand in properly Sealed condition

6 Mix Design of Concrete: At least one bag of Cement (unbroken bag) in fresh condition identifying Brand, Date/month of Manufacturing; Stone: At least 60 kg for 20 mm nominal size (as per IS 383:1970); Sand: At least 40 kg indicating Zone (as per IS 383:1970); Super plasticizer (Water Reducing). All the materials are in Properly Sealed condition.

7 Soil: At least 20 kg of soil in properly Sealed condition

8 DWS items (like Anthracite, Gravel, Pea gravel, MNO2 etc): At least 10 kg of each sample in properly Sealed condition

 

 

A. Physical Properties of Materials

 

A.1  PERMISSIBLE VALUES OF WATER ABSORPTIONS, IMPACT, ABRASION OF AGGREGATES FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF  WORKS Test Methods as per IS Code:2386:1963 (Pt-III & Pt-IV) and Specification For Coarse & Fine Aggregate as per IS Code: 383:1970 in conjunction with MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)

 

ITEMS of Work

WATER ABSORPTION %

IMPACT LOSS %

ABRASION LOSS %

 

Premix Carpeting

1.0%

30.0%

30.0%

 

Bituminous Concreting

2.0%

24.0%

30.0%

 

Dense Bituminous Maccadam

2.0%

27.0%

35.0%

 

Bituminous Maccadam

2.0%

30.0%

40.0%

 

Wet Mix Maccadam

2.0%

30.0%

40.0%

 

Water Bound Maccadam (Sub Base, Base, Surface)

2.0%

Sub Base    50.0%  Base           40.0% Surfacing   30.0%

40.0%

 

Granular Sub Base (Stone Aggregate)

2.0%

Based on CBR Value

 

Stone aggregate Used For Concreting

2.0%

45.0%

50.0%

 

Bricks : Upto Class Designation 12.5

20.0%

---

---

 

Bricks : Above Class Designation 12.5

15.0%

---

---

 

 

 

A.2   Aggregate Crushing Value

 

The aggregate crushing value, when determined in accordance with IS 2386 (Part 4) shall not exceed the following values:

 

Purpose of work

Max (IS 383:1970)

Ref.  IS Code (Test Method)

 

a) For aggregates to be used in  concrete for wearing surfaces, (such as runways, roads, pavements, spillways and stilling basins)

30 percent

IS 2386 (Part 4)

 

b) For aggregates to be used in concrete other than for wearing surfaces

45 percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.3 Soundness of Aggregate

 

Purpose:- The test determines resistance.  Note: If the water absorption value of coarse aggregate  is more than  2 percent, the Soundness test shall be carried out on the material delivered to site as per IS: 2386 (Part-5)

 

For concrete liable to be exposed to the action of frost, the coarse and fine aggregates shall pass a sodium or magnesium sulphate accelerated soundness test specified in IS 2386 (Part 5), the limits being set by agreement between the purchaser and the supplier.

 

The test determines the resistance to disintegration of aggregate by saturated solution of Sodium Sulphate. It indicates soundness against weathering.

 

Purpose of work

Maximum Permissible Value

Ref.  IS Code (Test Method)

 

a) For fine aggregate (All works)

10 percent when tested with sodium sulphate ( Na2SO4 ), and 15 percent when testing with magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 )

IS 2386 (Part 5)

 

b) For coarse aggregate (All Works)

12 percent when tested with sodium sulphate (Na2SO4), and18 percent when tested with magnesium sulphate (MgSO4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.4 Flakiness Index of Aggregates

 

Purpose: Use of flaky aggregate results in loss of strength of granular base and surface course

 

Type of work

Permissible Limit

Ref.  IS Code  (Test Method)

 

Subbase

Max 30 %

IS: 2386 (Part 1)-1963

 

Base

Max 25 %

 

Surface Course

Max 20 % .

 

Note:  The requirement of Flakiness Index shall be enforced only in the case of crushed or broken stone and crushed slag.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 B.  Free Swell Index Test of Soil

 

Purpose: On saturation, certain soils expand in volume due to the presence of particular minerals. Soil with free swell index more than 50% is considered inadequate for use as fill material.

 

Type of work

Permissible Limit

Ref.  IS Code  (Test Method)

 

Construction of embankment by filled earth

Max 50 %

IS: 2720 (Part 40)-1977

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C. Field Density of Soil by Core Cutter method

 

Purpose: Determination of soil density (Degree of Compaction) in field

 

Layer

Permissible Limit

 Ref.  IS Code & Specifications

 

Below Subgrade

Not less than 97 %

Test Method as per IS: 2720 (Part 25)-1974, Permissible Limit is in conjunction with MoRTH & MoRD.

 

 Subgrade

Not less than 100 %

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D. ROAD WORKS

 

D.1. Properties of Binding Materials for Road Work

 

Test for Bitumen Emulsion: Viscosity by Saybolt-Furol Viscometer

 

Purpose: Viscosity indicates the resistance to flow due to its internal friction.

 

Type of Emulsion

Acceptance Limits at  50 o C

Ref. IS Code & Specifications

 

Rapid Setting (RS-1)

20-100

IS 3117-1965 (Appendix A) and IS: 8887-2004  (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)

 

Rapid Setting (RS-2)

100-300

 

Medium Setting (MS)

50-400

 

Slow Setting (SS-1)

20-100

 

Slow Setting (SS-2)

30-150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Test for Residue of Bitumen Emulsion on 600 Micron Sieve

 

Purpose: The test  is required to assess the suitability of Bituminous material for road construction work.

 

Requirement Criterion ( Decisive Factor)

 

Type of Emulsion

Residue Percentage

Ref. IS Code & Specifications

 

Rapid Setting (RS-1)

0.05

IS: 8887-2004

 

Rapid Setting (RS-2)

0.05

 

Medium Setting (MS)

0.05

 

Slow Setting (SS-1)

0.05

 

Slow Setting (SS-2)

0.05

 

 

 

Flash point Test of Bitumen Cut Back

 

Purpose: The Flash point of bitumen that contains a volatile distillate is the temperature at which it begins to give off ignitable vapour. The principal purpose of flash-point testing is to determine maximum safe mixing and applying temperatures.

 

Requirement Criterion ( Decisive Factor)

 

Type of Cut Back Bitumen Medium Curing

Flus point Pensky Martens Closed Type (Minimum) 0 C

Ref. IS Code & Specifications

 

MC 30

38

IS 217-2004

 

MC 70

38

 

MC 250

65

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viscosity of Bitumen Cutback ( Kinematic Viscosity)

 

Purpose: Kinematic Viscosity of Cutback is determined to ascertain its suitability as construction materials.

 

Requirement Criterion ( Decisive Factor)

 

Type of Cut Back Bitumen Medium Curing

Kinematic Viscosity at 60 o C,

 

Min

Max

Ref. IS Code & Specifications

 

MC 30

 

30

60

IS 1206 (Part-3)-1978

 

MC 70

 

70

140

 

MC 250

 

250

500

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Temperature of Binder

 

Purpose: Temperature of binder shall be measured by using metallic contact thermometer with digital display to ensure that it has been heated to required extent.

 

The range of thermometer for different type of bituminous materials and accuracy shall be as under:

 

1) Melted Bitumen: Ambient to 200 0 C accuracy plus minus 1.0  0 C

 

2) Cutback Bitumen: Ambient to 100 0 C accuracy plus minus  0.5  0 C

 

3) Bitumen Emulsion: Ambient to 80 0 C accuracy plus minus  0.5  0 C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prime Coat of Granular Base (Slow setting Bitumen Emulsion)

 

Porosity

Type of Surface

Viscosity at 60 0 C, Saybolt Furol ( Seconds)

 

Low

WMM / WBM

14-28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Track Coat

 

Tack Coat  Rapid setting Bitumen Emulsion, Grade-1 conforming IS: 1887  or Cut back bitumen  of Medium Curing grade as  per IS: 217

 

 

 

Rate (Kg per Sqm) of Application of Binder

 

Type of Surface

 

Qty of emulsion Kg per Sqm

 

Normal Bituminious Surface

 

0.20 to 0.25

 

Dry & Hungry Bituminious surface

 

0.25 to 0.30

 

Granular (Primed)

 

0.25 to 0.30

 

CC Pavement

 

0.30 to 0.35

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mixing, Laying & Rolling Temperature for Bituminous Macadam

 

Bitumen Penetration

Bitumen Mixing ( 0 C)

Aggregate Mixing ( 0 C)

Aggregate Mixing (0 C)

Laying ( 0 C)

 

35

160-170

160-175

Max. 170

Min 140

 

65

150-165

150-170

Max. 165

Min 130

 

90

140-160

140-165

Max. 155

Min 130

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Standard PAVING BITUMEN — SPECIFICATION ( Fourth Revision ) IS: 73:2013  (Table 1 )

 

Requirements for Paving Bitumen, IS 73 : 2013 (Clause 6.2)

 

In the third revision in 2006 grading of bitumen was changed from penetration grade to viscosity grade. The variability in performance at high temperatures can be addressed by adopting a viscosity-graded bitumen specification (based on viscosity at 60°C) in lieu of the penetration-graded specification (based on penetration at 25°C). Four grades of bitumen based on the viscosity values were presented.

 

Characteristics

Paving Grades

 

VG10

VG20

VG30

VG40

 

Penetration at 25°C, 100 g, 5 s, 0.1 mm

80

60

45

35

 

Absolute viscosity at 60°C, Poises

800-1200

1600-2400

2400-3600

3200-4800

 

Kinematic viscosity at 135°C, cSt, Min

250

300

350

400

 

Flash point (Cleveland open cup), °C, Min

220

220

220

220

 

Solubility in trichloroethylene, percent, Min

99

99

99

99

 

Softening point (R&B), °C, Min

40

45

47

50

 

Tests on residue from rolling thin film oven test:

 

a) Viscosity ratio at 60°C, Max

4

4

4

4

 

b) Ductility at 25°C, cm, Min

75

50

40

25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Requirements for Paving Bitumen, IS 73 : 2006 (Clause 6.2)(Third Revision)

 

Characteristics

Paving Grades

 

VG10

VG20

VG30

VG40

 

Absolute viscocity at 60 0  C, Poises, Min

800

1600

2400

3200

 

Kinematic viscosity at 135°C, cSt, Min

250

300

350

400

 

Flash point (Cleveland open cup), °C, Min

220

220

220

220

 

Solubility in trichloroethylene, percent, Min

99

99

99

99

 

Penetration at 25 C, 100 g, 5 s, 0.1 mm

80-100

60-80

50-70

40-60

 

Softening point (R&B), °C, Min

40

45

47

50

 

Tests on residue from rolling thin film oven test:

 

a) Viscosity ratio at 60°C, Max

4

4

4

4

 

b) Ductility at 25°C, cm, Min

75

50

40

25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.2 Water bound Macadam Sub-Base/Base/Surfacing (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)

 

Course aggregate can be crushed or broken stone, crushed slag, over burnt brick aggregate, Kankar, Laterine meeting the prescribed requirements. The thickness of compacted layer should be 100 mm for grading-1 and 75 mm for grading 2 & 3.

 

Screening materials:(IS : 2720 ( Part-5): The use of screenings shall be  omitted in the case of soft aggregate like brick metal, Kankar, Laterite etc. In case the screenings are not of crushable type such as moorum or gravel, it is necessary to add bin) Physical requirement: Screening should normally consist of same material as the course aggregate. However, where economic consideration so warrant, non plastic material such as moorum or gravel with LL less than 20 & Plasticity index 6 may be used. Fraction passing 75 micron should not exceed 10%.  The binding material: Binding materials may not be necessary if the screenings used are of crushable type. Used as a filler material shall comprise of a suitable material approved by the Engineer-In-Charge having plasticity index of value ;less than 6 for sub base/base course and 4-10 for surfacing. - Therefore, binding materials  should be applied in two or more  layer for surfacing  and uniform manner . Generally, the quantity required for 10.00 Sqm of 75 mm thickness of WBM is 0.06 Cum to 0.09 Cum and for 100 mm thickness, the binding materials would be 0.08 Cum to 0.10 Cum.

 

Grading requirement of Course aggregate for WBM Works ( IS: 2386, Part-5) (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)

 

Grading No

Size Range

IS Sieve Designation

Percent by Wt passing the IS Sieve

 

I

90 mm to 45 mm

125 mm

100

 

90 mm

90-100

 

63 mm

25-60

 

45 mm

0-15

 

22.4 mm

0-5

 

II

63 mm to 45 mm

90 mm

100

 

63 mm

90-100

 

53 mm

25-75

 

45 mm

0-15

 

22.4 mm

0-5

 

III

53 mm to 22.4 mm

63 mm

100

 

53 mm

90-100

 

45 mm

65-90

 

22.4 mm

0-10

 

11.2 mm

0-5

 

The compacted thickness for a layer with grading-I shall be 100 mm while for layer with other grading i.e 2 & 3, it shall be 75 mm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grading requirement of screening for WBM Works ( IS: 2386, Part-5) (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)

 

Grading Classification

Size of Screenings

IS Sieve Designation

Percent by Wt passing the IS Sieve

 

A

13.2 mm

13.2 mm

100

 

11.2 mm

95-100

 

5.6 mm

15-35

 

180 micron

0-10

 

B

11.2 mm

11.2 mm

100

 

5.6 mm

90-100

 

180 micron

15-35

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Approximate quantity of course aggregate and screening required for 100/75 mm compacted thickness of water bound maccadam (WBM) subbase/base/surfacing course for 10 Sqm area. (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)

 

 

 Compacted  thickness (mm) /    Loose Qty(Cum)

Stone Screenings

Crushable Screenings such as moorum or gravel

 

       Classification /  Size Range(Sqm)

Grading classification  & Size

For WMB Sub base / Base Course (Loose Qty) Cum

Properties.

 

Grading-1 (90 to 45)

100 mm/1.21 to 1.43 Cum

Type-A 13.2 mm

0.27 to 0.30

LL < 20% PI < 6 %  Passing 0.075 mm < 10 %

 

Grading-2 (63 to 45)

75 mm/0.91 to 1.07 Cum

Type-A 13.2 mm

0.12 to 0.15

------Do----

 

Grading-2 (63 to 45)

75 mm/0.91 to 1.07 Cum

Type-B 11.2 mm

0.20 to 0.22

------Do----

 

Grading-3 (53 to 22.4)

75 mm/0.91 to 1.07 Cum

Type-B 11.2 mm

0.18 to 0.21

------Do----

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Volumetric Analysis of WBM work

 

Purpose: The test is conducted to make sure that adequate quantity and composition of material have been used in the construction.

 

Procedure

 

 

 

 

 

Dig a pit 0.50 m x 0.50 m in the area where random checking is to be carried out. Take out all the WBM  materials from the Pit. One of the following test to be conducted.

 

Test-1:Refill the pit with the dug material without compacting. If the pit can be filled by using not more than 65 % of the dug material, it is indicative of adequate compaction and use of specified quantity of all material combine together.

 

Test-2: i) Separate the portions of the WBM materials passing and retained on 11.2 mm size sieve when type B screening have been used. When A type screenings have been used, the proportion of WBM materials passing and retained on 13.2 mm size should be determined.

 

ii) Measure  the loose volumes of the two portions using cylinders of known volume  and compare the combinded volume with the combinded specified quantities of coarse aggregate screenings+ Binding material.

 

iii) The volume of materials retain on 11.2 mm size sieve ( or 13.2 mm size sieve, as the case may be) shall be compared with the specified quantity of coarse aggregate viz. 0.912 to 1.07 Cum per 10 sqm for WBM grading 2 & 3. Due allowances shall be made for crushing during rolling.

 

iv) The material passing on 11.2 mm size sieve ( or 13.2 mm size sieve, as the case may be) shall be compared with the specified quantity of stone screenings and binding materials or crushable screenings as the case may be.

 

v) For the coarse aggregate, the qty may be check by conducting an aggregate impact test and determining the presence of any over sized aggregate.

 

vi) For the Finer fraction passing 425 micron size sieve , the plasticity Index shall be determined to check that it is less 6.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.3 Granular Sub base (GSB) (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)

 

Material: Natural sand, moorum, gravel, crushed stone, crushed slag, brick metal, Kankar or a combination thereof and it shall conform grading requirement. The sub base material should be spread in layers not exceeding 100 mm compacted thickness. It vibratory roller is used, the compacted thickness of layer can be upto a max of 225 mm  When sub base materials consist of a combination of materials, mixing shall be done mechanically by mix-in-place method. Moisture content of the loose material shall be checked in accordance with IS: 2720 (Part-2)   Compaction should be carried out at OMC, with tolerance limit of plus minus 2 %. Each layer should be compacted to 100 % maximum dry density as per prescribed standard Proctor Test IS 2720 ( Part-7)

 

Grading for Granular Sub base materials

 

IS Sieve Designation

Percentage by weight passing the sieve

Remarks

 

Grading-I

Grading-II

Grading-III

 

75 mm

100

------

.-----

Note:  1: The material passing 425 micron (0.425 mm) sieve for all the three gradings when tested according to IS: 2720 (Part-5) shall have Liquid limit and plasticity index not more than 25 & 6 percent respectively. 2) On clayey subgrade, the percent passing IS Sieve 0.075 mm shall not exceed 5 3) The wet aggregate impact value (IS: 5640) shall not exceed 50 4) The material to be used in the subgrade shall have minimum soaked CBR value 20 CBR value not less than 15 can be permitted with the approval of the competent authority.

 

53 mm

-----

100

.------

 

26.5 mm

55-75

50-80

100

 

9.5 mm

------

------

-----

 

4.75 mm

10-30

15-35

25-45

 

2.36 mm

-----

-----

------

 

0.425 mm

-----

------

-------

 

0.075 mm

< 10

< 10

< 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.4 Composition of Bituminous Macadam (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)

 

IS Sieve

 Percent Passing by weight of Total Aggregate

Remarks

 

26.5

100

Note:  For Condition in cooler area of india or where the percent passing 0.075 mm sieve is on higher side of the range, appropriate bitumen contents may be upto 0.5 percent higher, subject to approval of the Engineer

 

19

90-100

 

13.2

56-88

 

4.75

16-36

 

2.36

4-19

 

0.03

2-10

 

0.075

0-5

 

Bitumen content  % by weight of Total Mixture

3.3 to 3.5

 

Bitumen Penetration Grade

35 to 90

 

 

 

D.5  20 mm thick premix carpet Open Graded Premix Surfacing (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)

 

Binder: The binder shall be a penetration grade of bitumen of a suitable grade S-65/90 as specified in contract. IS 73

 

Field inspection  criteria

 

Quantities of materials required for 10 Sqm area

 

Aggregate

Quantity

 

a) Nominal size 13.2 mm (Passing 22.4 mm Sieve and retained on 11.2 mm sieve)

0.18 m 3

 

b) Nominal size 11.2 mm (Passing 13.2 mm Sieve and retained on 5.6 mm sieve)

0.09 m 3

 

Total

0.27 m 3

 

 

 

Binder

Quantity

 

a) For 0.18 m 3 of 13.2 mm nominal size stone 52 Kg  bitumen per m 3

9.5 Kg

 

a) For 0.09 m 3 of 11.2 mm nominal size stone 56 Kg  bitumen per m 3

5.10 Kg

 

Total

14.60 Kg

 

 

 

Grading requirement for Chips for surface dressing

 

IS  Sieve Designation

Cumulative percent by weight of total aggregate passing for the following nominal sizes (mm)

 

13.2

9.5

6.3

 

19.00

100

----

-----

 

13.20

85-100

100

-----

 

9.50

0-40

85-100

100

 

6.30

0-7

0-35

85-100

 

4.75

----

0-10

-----

 

3.35

----

----

0-35

 

2.36

0-2

0-2

0-10

 

0.60

----

-----

0-2

 

0.08

0-1.50

0-1.5

0-1.5

 

Minimum 65 % by weight of aggregate

Passing 13.2 mm, Retained 9.5 mm

Passing 9.5 mm  Retained 6.3 mm

Passing 6.3 mm  Retained 3.35 mm

 

NOTE:-

 

Mixing temperature of Bitumen should be in range of 150 0 C to 163 0 C Mixing temperature of Aggregate  should be in range of 155 0 C to 163 0 C Provided that the difference between the temperature of aggregate and the binder  should not exceed 140C Binder should be a penetration grade bitumen of a suitable grade of S-65/90 depending on the climatic condition of the area.

 

 

 

 Premix carpet using Bitumen Emulsion

 

The quantities of material required for 20 mm thick premix carpet should be as indicated below

 

i) Aggregate same as 20 mm carpeting

 

ii) Binder: Cationic Bitumen Emulsion

 

a) For 0.18 cum of 13.2 mm nominal size stone at 78 Kg  Cationic Bitumen Emulsion per cum

14.00 Kg per 10 Sqm area

 

a) For 0.09 cum of 11.2 mm nominal size stone at 84 Kg  Cationic Bitumen Emulsion per cum

7.50 Kg per 10 Sqm area

 

Total

21.50 Kg per 10 Sqm area

 

Binder for premix carpet wearing course shall be bitumen emulsion of Medium Setting (MS) grade complying with IS: 8887 and having a bitumen content of 65  % minimum by weight.

 

Emulsion  for liquid seal coat shall be of RS grade of MS grade  where specified. Emulsion for premeix seal coat shall be of SS (Slow Setting) grade.

 

 

 

 

 

Seal Coat

 

Type-A: Liquid seal coat comprising of an application of layer of bituminious binder followed by a cover of stone Chips.

 

Type-B:Premixed seal coat comprising of a thin applicationn of fine aggregate premixed with bituminious binder

 

Type-C:Premixed seal coat comprising of an application of 6.7 mm size stone chips premixed with bituminious binder.

 

Type A Seal coat with bitumen: Apply bitumen with a temperature between 150 0 C and  163 0 C uniformly with a sparayer. Thereafter, spread stone chips over the bitumen layer

 

Quality control requirements of Seal Coat

 

a) Quantity of Coarse aggregates & Binders along with  Gradation requirement of aggregate for seal coat

 

Type of Seal Coat

Qty of Aggregate required  per 10 Sqm area

Gradation Requirement of coarse Aggregate

Binder Content per 10 Sqm

 

100 % Passing sieve designation

100 % retained sieve  designation

Bitumen in Kg

 

Type- A

0.09 Cum

11.2 mm

2.36 mm.

9.8

 

Type- B

0.06 Cum

2.36 mm

180 microns

6.8

 

Type- C

0.09 Cum

9.5 mm

2.36 mm.

4.5 % by weight of total mix

 

 

 

D.6   Stone Aggregate for DBM (Clause 507, Table 500-10 MoRTH)

 

IS Sieve (mm)

Grading Requirements (% Passing) Ref. Range

 

Grading -I  (40 mm nominal size) Layer Thickness 80-100 mm

Grading -II (25 mm nominal size) Layer Thickness 50-75 mm

 

45

100

-----

 

37.5

95-100

100.00

 

26.5

63-93

90-100

 

19

-----

71-95

 

13.2

55-75

56-80

 

4.75

38-54

38-54

 

2.36

-----

28-54

 

0.30

7-21

7-21

 

0.075

2-8

2-8

 

Minm Bitumen Content % By Weight of Total mix

4.00%

4.50%

 

Bitumen Grade (Pen)

65 or 90

65 or 90

 

D.7   Wet Mix Macadam (WMM) (Section 400, Clause 406 , Table 400-11 of  MoRTH)

 

IS Sieve (mm)

Grading Requirements   (% Passing) Ref. Range

Remarks

 

53

100

As per Table 400-11, The gradation Should be within the above limits and  not varied from the low limit of one sieve to the high limit of adjacent sieve or vice-versa . he materials finer than 425 micron shall have Plasticity Index (PI) not exceeding 6.

 

45

95-100

 

22.4

60-80

 

11.2

40-60

 

4.75

25-40

 

2.36

15-30

 

0.60

8-22

 

0.075

0-8

 

 

 

D.8  Bituminous  Concrete Pavement (Section 500, Table 500-18 of MoRTH)

 

IS Sieve (mm)

Grading Requirements  (% Passing) Ref. Range

 

Grading-I,    Nominal Size 13 mm,   Layer Thickness 35 - 40 mm

Grading-II,  Nominal Size 10 mm,   Layer Thickness 25 - 30 mm

 

26.5

100.00

-----

 

19

79-100

100.00

 

13.20

59-79

79-100

 

9.50

52-72

70-88

 

4.75

35-55

53-71

 

2.36

28-44

42-58

 

1.18

20-34

34-48

 

0.60

15-27

26-38

 

0.30

10-20

18-28

 

0.15

5-13

12-20

 

0.075

2-8

4-10

 

Minm Bitumen Content % By Weight of Total mix

5.0 - 6.0

5.0 -7.0

 

Bitumen Grade (Pen)

65.00

65*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.9   Grouting Work

 

Clause 1904.2.2 of MoRD Specification : All materials used for the pot- hole and patch repairing of bituminous Surface and underlying layers shall be in accordance with these Specifications and shall be of the same type as specified for the original construction or higher.

 

D.10   Horizontal Alignment

 

Purpose: It is necessary to check the  the horizontal alignment to ensure that the work is set out in accordance with the approved drawings and dimensions.

 

Locations on Road

Permitted Tolerance

 

In Plain and Rolling Terrain

In Hilly terrain

 

Edges of carriage way.

Plus minus 20 mm

Plus minus 30 mm

 

Edges of road way and lower layer of pavement

Plus minus 30 mm

Plus minus 50 mm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.  BRICKS

 

Classification and quality of Bricks ( Ref IS: 1077 : 1992)

 

Class Designation

Compressive Strength not Less than ( N/mm2) (approx )

Remarks

 

 35

35.00

As per specification of work, compressive strength of 1st class and 2nd class brick are 105 Kg/ Cm 2   ,75 Kg/ Cm 2     Water Absorption The bricks, when tested in accordance with the procedure laid down  in IS 3495 ( Part 2) : 1992 after immersion in cold water for 24 hours, water absorption shall not be more than 20 percent by weight up to class 12'5 and 15 percent by weight for higher classes

 

  30

30.00

 

     25 

25.00

 

20.0

20.00

 

17.5

17.50

 

15.0

15.00

 

12.5

12.50

 

10.0

10.00

 

7.5

7.50

 

5.0

5.00

 

3.5

3.50

 

 

 

As per specification of building work, SoR 2017,Building work,  the requirement of bricks shall be as follows

 

Type of Bricks

Dimension (in mm) (Length x Breadth x Depth)

Minimum Compressive Strength

Water Absorption (max)

 

        Actual                 Nominal             Tolerance

 

1 st Class

250x120x70         255x123x72         plus minus 3

105 Kg/ cm 2

20 % by weight

 

2 nd Class

250x120x70         255x123x72          plus minus 5

75 Kg/ cm 2

25 % by weight

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Efflorescence of Bricks

 

The bricks when tested in accordance with the the rating of efflorescence shall not be more than 'moderate' up to class 12·5 and 'slight' for higher classes.

 

Nil - When there is no perceptible deposit of efflorescence.  Slight - When not more than 10 percent of the exposed area of the brick is covered with a thin deposit of salts.  Moderate - When there is a heavier deposit than under ‘slight’ and covering up to 50 percent of the exposed area of the brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the surface.  Heavy - When there is a heavy deposit of salts covering 50 percent or more of the exposed area of the brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the surface.  Serious - When there is a heavy deposit of salts accompanied by powdering and/or flaking of the exposed surfaces.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F. CONCRETING WORKS

 

F.1  Criteria of Graded Course aggregate for Concrete works ( Clause 4.1 and 4.2  of IS 383:1970)

 

Gradation analysis

 

IS Sieve Designation

Percentage passing for graded aggregate of nominal size

 

40 mm

20 mm

16 mm

12.5 mm

 

80 mm

100

-----

-----

-----

 

63 mm

-----

-----

-----

-----

 

40 mm

95-100

100

 

 

 

20 mm

30-70

95-100

100

100

 

 16mm

------

------

90-100

------

 

12.5 mm

------

------

------

90-100

 

10 mm

10-35

25-55

30-70

40-85

 

4.75 mm

0-5

0-10

0-10

0-10

 

 2.36 mm

-----

-----

-----

-----

 

 

 

F.2 Criteria of Fine aggregate for Building works (Clause 4.3  of IS 383:1970) Sieve Analysis

 

IS Sieve Designation

Percentage passing for

 
 

Grading Zone-I

Grading Zone-II

Grading Zone-III

Grading Zone-IV

 

10 mm

100

100

100

100

 

4.75 mm

90-100

90-100

90-100

95-100

 

2.36 mm

60-95

75-100

85-100

95-100

 

1.18 mm

30-70

55-90

75-100

90-100

 

600 micron

15-34

35-59

60-79

80-100

 

300 micron

5-20

8-30

12-40

15-50

 

150 micron

0-10

0-10

0-10

0-15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F.3  Permissible Limit of Cement test Result  (Ref. IS:8112 & IS:269)

 

Items of Test

Permissible Limit (Ref. IS:8112 & IS:269)

 

1.  Initial Setting time

Minm 30 minutes

 

2.  Final Setting time

Maxm 600 minutes

 

3.  Soundness (Le Chatelier Method)

Maximum 10mm

 

4.  Fineness (Sieving   Method)

Maximum 10 %

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F.4  Concrete Cube

 

METHODS OF TESTS FOR STRENGTH OF CONCRETES: IS 516 :  1959 : Procedure for making and curing compression test specimens of concrete. Tests for the determination of compressive strength.

 

Frequency of Sampling (As per IS 456  2000)  Sampling Procedure A random sampling procedure shall be adopted to ensure that each concrete batch shall have a reasonable chance of being tested that is, the sampling should be spread over the entire period of concreting and cover all mixing units.   Frequency The minimum frequency of sampling of concrete of each grade shall be in accordance with the following: 

Quantity of Concrete Work, m3                                               Number of Samples               

               1- 5                                                                                               1              

              6- 15                                                                                              2           

             16- 30                                                                                             3           

             31-50                                                                                              4      

       51 and above                                   4 plus one additional sample for each additional 50 m3 or part thereof

 NOTE- At least one sample shall be taken from each Shift. Where concrete is produced at continuous production unit, such as ready-mixed concrete plant, frequency of ’sampling may be agreed upon mutually by suppliers and purchasers.

 

Test Specimen Three test specimens shall be made for each sample for testing at 28 days. Additional samples may be required for various purposes such as to determine the strength of concrete at 7 days or at the time of striking the formwork, or to determine the duration of curing, or to check the testing error. Additional samples may also be required for testing samples cured by accelerated methods as described in IS 9103. The specimen shall be tested as described in IS 516.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (As Per IS 456: 2000) Compressive Strength, the concrete shall be deemed to comply with the strength requirements when both the following condition are met: a) The mean strength determined from any group of four consecutive test results compiles with the appropriate limits in col 2 of Table 11. b) Any individual test result complies with the appropriate limits in col 3 of Table 11.

 

Testing In case of doubt regarding the grade of concrete or results of cube strength tests (As per IS 456: 2000) In case of doubt regarding the grade of concrete used, either due to poor workmanship or based on results of cube strength tests, compressive strength tests of concrete on the basis of Core Test  and/or Load test may be carried out.  Core Test : The points from which cores are to be taken and the number of cores required shall be at the discretion of the engineer-in-charge and shall be representative of the whole of concrete concerned. In no case, however, shall fewer than three cores be tested. Cores shall be prepared and tested as described in IS 516. Concrete in the member represented by a core test shall be considered acceptable if the average equivalent cube strength of the cores is equal to at least 85 percent of the cube strength of the grade of concrete specified for the corresponding age and no individual core has a strength less than 75 percent.

 

Load Test : In case the core test results do not satisfy the requirements or where such tests have not been done, Load Test  may be resorted. Load Tests for Flexural Members, Members Other Than Flexural Members.  Load Tests for Flexural Members The structure should be subjected to a load equal to full dead load of the structure plus 1.25 times the imposed load for a period of 24 h and then the imposed load shall be removed. The deflection due to imposed load only shall be recorded. If within 24 h of removal of the imposed load the structure does not recover at least 75 percent of the deflection under superimposed load, the test may be repeated after a lapse of 72 h. If the recovery is less than 80 percent, the structure shall be deemed to be unacceptable.  If the maximum deflection in mm, shown during 24 h under load is less than 40L2/D, where L is the effective span in m; and D, the overall depth of the section in mm, it is not necessary for the recovery to be measured.

 

Non-destructive Tests Non-destructive tests are used to obtain estimation of the properties of concrete in the structure. The methods adopted include ultrasonic pulse velocity [see IS 133 11 (Part l)] and rebound hammer [IS 13311 (Part 2)], probe penetration, pullout and maturity. Nondestructive tests provide alternatives to core tests for estimating the strength of concrete in a structure, or can supplement the data obtained from a limited number of cores. These methods are based on measuring a concrete property that bears some relationship to strength. The accuracy of these methods, in part, is determined by the degree of correlation between strength and the physical quality measured by the non-destructive tests. Any of these methods may be adopted, in which case the acceptance criteria shall be agreed upon prior to testing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

G.  General Construction in Steel

 

IS:800-1984 : This code applies to general construction in steel. Specific provisions for bridges, chimneys, cranes, tanks, transmission line towers, storage structures, tubular structures and structures using cold formed light gauge sections, etc, are covered in separate codes. The provisions of this code generally .apply to riveted, bolted and welded constructions, using hot rolled steel sections. This code gives only general guidance as regards the various loads to be considered in design, For actual loads to be used reference may be made to IS : 875-1964.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H. REINFORCEMENT

 

IS:1786 - 1985 :  This standard covers the requirements of deformed steel bars and wires for use as reinforcement in concrete, in the following three strength grades: a) Fe 415, b) Fe 500, and c) Fe 550. Note:- The figures following the symbol Fe indicates the specified minimum 0.20 Percent proof stress or yield stress in N/mm2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I. Mix Design of Concrete  (As per IS :10262-2009)

 

This standard provides the guidelines for proportioning concrete mixes as per the requirements using the concrete making materials including other supplementary materials identified for this purpose. The proportioning is carried out to achieve specified characteristics at specified age, workability of fresh concrete and durability requirements. This standard is applicable for ordinary and standard concrete grades only. All requirements of IS:456-2000 in so far as they apply, shall be deemed to form part of this standard.

 

The following data are required for mix proportioning of a particular grade of concrete: a) Grade designation b) Type of cement c) Maximum nominal size of aggregate  d) Minimum cement content  e) Maximum water-cement ratio  f) Workability  g) Exposure conditions as per Table 4 and Table 5 of IS : 456-2000  h) Maximum temperature of concrete at the time of placing  j) Method of transporting and placing;  k) Early age strength requirements, if required:  l) Type of aggregate   m) Maximum cement content; and  n) Whether an admixture shall or shall not used and the type of admixture and the condition of use.

 

Note: 1) Aggregates should be used in saturated surface dry condition, 2) Two more trials having variation of ±10 percent of water-cement ratio shall be carried out, 3)The slump shall be measured and the water content and dosage of admixture shall be adjusted for achieving the required slump based on trial. 4) Minimum cement Content from Table 5 of IS:456-2000, Maximum cement content 450 kg/m3  (As per clause 8.2.4.2 of IS: 456-2000) or limited to  500 kg/m3  (Clause no 5.8.4.1 of CPWD Specification(Vol-I) 2009

 

Properties of materials and Permissible limit of Tests .

 

A. Physical Properties of Materials
A.1 PERMISSIBLE VALUES OF WATER ABSORPTIONS, IMPACT, ABRASION OF AGGREGATES FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF WORKS
Test Methods as per IS Code:2386:1963 (Pt-III & Pt-IV) and Specification For Coarse & Fine Aggregate as per IS Code: 383:1970 in conjunction with MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)
ITEMS of Work WATER ABSORPTION % IMPACT LOSS % ABRASION LOSS %
Premix Carpeting 1.0% 30.0% 30.0%
Bituminous Concreting 2.0% 24.0% 30.0%
Dense Bituminous Maccadam 2.0% 27.0% 35.0%
Bituminous Maccadam 2.0% 30.0% 40.0%
Wet Mix Maccadam 2.0% 30.0% 40.0%
Water Bound Maccadam (Sub Base, Base, Surface) 2.0% Sub Base 50.0%
Base 40.0%
Surfacing 30.0%
40.0%
Granular Sub Base (Stone Aggregate) 2.0% Based on CBR Value
Stone aggregate Used For Concreting 2.0% 45.0% 50.0%
Bricks : Upto Class Designation 12.5 20.0% --- ---
Bricks : Above Class Designation 12.5 15.0% --- ---
A.2 Aggregate Crushing Value
The aggregate crushing value, when determined in accordance with IS 2386 (Part 4) shall not exceed the following values:
Purpose of work Max (IS 383:1970) Ref. IS Code (Test Method)
a) For aggregates to be used in concrete for wearing surfaces, (such as runways, roads, pavements, spillways and stilling basins) 30 percent IS 2386 (Part 4)
b) For aggregates to be used in concrete other than for wearing surfaces 45 percent
A.3 Soundness of Aggregate
Purpose:- The test determines resistance.
Note: If the water absorption value of coarse aggregate is more than 2 percent, the Soundness test shall be carried out on the material delivered to site as per IS: 2386 (Part-5)
For concrete liable to be exposed to the action of frost, the coarse and fine aggregates shall pass a sodium or magnesium sulphate accelerated soundness test specified in IS 2386 (Part 5), the limits being set by agreement between the purchaser and the supplier.
The test determines the resistance to disintegration of aggregate by saturated solution of Sodium Sulphate. It indicates soundness against weathering.
Purpose of work Maximum Permissible Value Ref. IS Code (Test Method)
a) For fine aggregate (All works) 10 percent when tested with sodium sulphate ( Na2SO4 ), and 15 percent when testing with magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 ) IS 2386 (Part 5)
b) For coarse aggregate (All Works) 12 percent when tested with sodium sulphate (Na2SO4), and18 percent when tested with magnesium sulphate (MgSO4)
A.4 Flakiness Index of Aggregates
Purpose: Use of flaky aggregate results in loss of strength of granular base and surface course
Type of work Permissible Limit Ref. IS Code
(Test Method)
Subbase Max 30 % IS: 2386 (Part 1)-1963
Base Max 25 %
Surface Course Max 20 % .
Note: The requirement of Flakiness Index shall be enforced only in the case of crushed or broken stone and crushed slag.
B. Free Swell Index Test of Soil
Purpose: On saturation, certain soils expand in volume due to the presence of particular minerals. Soil with free swell index more than 50% is considered inadequate for use as fill material.
Type of work Permissible Limit Ref. IS Code
(Test Method)
Construction of embankment by filled earth Max 50 % IS: 2720 (Part 40)-1977
C. Field Density of Soil by Core Cutter method
Purpose: Determination of soil density (Degree of Compaction) in field
Layer Permissible Limit
Ref. IS Code & Specifications
Below Subgrade Not less than 97 % Test Method as per IS: 2720 (Part 25)-1974, Permissible Limit is in conjunction with MoRTH & MoRD.
Subgrade Not less than 100 %
D. ROAD WORKS
D.1. Properties of Binding Materials for Road Work
Test for Bitumen Emulsion: Viscosity by Saybolt-Furol Viscometer
Purpose: Viscocity indicates the resistance to flow due to its internal friction.
Type of Emulsion Acceptance Limits at 50 o C Ref. IS Code & Specifications
Rapid Setting (RS-1) 20-100 IS 3117-1965 (Appendix A) and IS: 8887-2004
(MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)
Rapid Setting (RS-2) 100-300
Medium Setting (MS) 50-400
Slow Setting (SS-1) 20-100
Slow Setting (SS-2) 30-150
Test for Residue of Bitumen Emulsion on 600 Micron Sieve
Purpose: The test is required to assess the suitability of Bituminious material for road construction work.
Requirement Criterion ( Decisive Factor)
Type of Emulsion Residue Percentage Ref. IS Code & Specifications
Rapid Setting (RS-1) 0.05 IS: 8887-2004
Rapid Setting (RS-2) 0.05
Medium Setting (MS) 0.05
Slow Setting (SS-1) 0.05
Slow Setting (SS-2) 0.05
Flash point Test of Bitumen Cut Back
Purpose: The Flash point of bitumen that contains a volatile distillate is the temperature at which it begins to give off ignitable vapour. The principal purpose of flash-point testing is to determinemaximum safe mixing and applying temperatures.
Requirement Criterion ( Decisive Factor)
Type of Cut Back Bitumen Medium Curing Flus point Pensky Martens Closed Type (Minimum) 0 C Ref. IS Code & Specifications
MC 30 38 IS 217-2004
MC 70 38
MC 250 65
Viscosity of Bitumen Cutback ( Kinematic Viscosity)
Purpose: Kinematic Viscosity of Cutback is determinded to assertain its suitability as a construction materials.
Requirement Criterion ( Decisive Factor)
Type of Cut Back Bitumen Medium Curing Kinemic Viscosity at 60 o C,
Min Max Ref. IS Code & Specifications
MC 30 30 60

IS 1206 (Part-3)-1978 

MC 70 70 140
MC 250 250 500
Temperature of Binder
Purpose: Temperature of binder shall be measured by usung metallic contact thermometer with digital display to ensure that it has been heated to required extent.
The range of thermometer for different type of bituminious materials and accuracy shall be as under:
1) Melted Bitumen: Ambient to 200 0 C accuracy plus minus 1.0 0 C
2) Cutback Bitumen: Ambient to 100 0 C accuracy plus minus 0.5 0 C
3) Bitumen Emulsion: Ambient to 80 0 C accuracy plus minus 0.5 0 C
Prime Coat of Granular Base (Slow setting Bitumen Emulsion)
Porosity Type of Surface Viscosity at 60 0 C, Saybolt Furol ( Seconds)
Low WMM / WBM 14-28
Track Coat
Tack Coat Rapid setting Bitumen Emulsion, Grade-1 conforming IS: 1887 or Cut back bitumen of Medium Curing grade as per IS: 217
 
Rate (Kg per Sqm) of Application of Binder
Type of Surface   Qty of emulsion Kg per Sqm
Normal Bituminious Surface   0.20 to 0.25
Dry & Hungry Bituminious surface   0.25 to 0.30
Granular (Primed)   0.25 to 0.30
CC Pavement   0.30 to 0.35
Mixing, Laying & Rolling Temperature for Bituminious Macadam
Bitumen Penetration Bitumen Mixing ( 0 C) Aggregate Mixing ( 0 C) Aggregate Mixing (0 C) Laying ( 0 C) Rolling ( 0 C)
35 160-170 160-175 Max. 170 Min 140 Min 110
65 150-165 150-170 Max. 165 Min 130 Min 100
90 140-160 140-165 Max. 155 Min 130 Min 100
Indian Standard PAVING BITUMEN — SPECIFICATION ( Fourth Revision ) IS: 73:2013 (Table 1 )
Requirements for Paving Bitumen, IS 73 : 2013 (Clause 6.2)
 
Characteristics Paving Grades Method of Test, Ref
VG10 VG20 VG30 VG40
  80 60 45 35 IS 1203
  800-1200 1600-2400 2400-3600 3200-4800 IS1206 (Part 2)
  250 300 350 400 IS 1206 (Part 3)
  220 220 220 220 IS 1448 [P : 69]
Solubility in trichloroethylene, percent, Min 99 99 99 99 IS 1216
  40 45 47 50 IS 1205
Tests on residue from rolling thin film oven test:
  4 4 4 4 IS 1206 (Part 2)
  75 50 40 25 IS 1208
Requirements for Paving Bitumen, IS 73 : 2006 (Clause 6.2)(Third Revision)
Characteristics Paving Grades Method of Test, Ref
VG10 VG20 VG30 VG40
Absolute viscocity at 60 0 C, Poises, Min 800 1600 2400 3200 IS1206 (Part 2)
  250 300 350 400 IS 1206 (Part 3)
  220 220 220 220 IS 1209
Solubility in trichloroethylene, percent, Min 99 99 99 99 IS 1216
Penetration at 25 0 C, 100 g, 5 s, 0.1 mm 80-100 60-80 50-70 40-60 IS 1203
  40 45 47 50 IS 1205
Tests on residue from rolling thin film oven test:
  4 4 4 4 IS 1206 (Part 2)
  75 50 40 25 IS 1208
D.2 Water bound Macadam Sub-Base/Base/Surfacing (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)
Course aggregate can be crushed or broken stone, crushed slag, over dburnt brick aggregate, Kankar, Laterine meeting the prescribed requirements.
The thickness of compacted layer should be 100 mm for grading-1 and 75 mm for grading 2 & 3.
Screening materials:(IS : 2720 ( Part-5): The use of screenings shall be omitted in the case of soft aggregate like brick metal, Kankar, Laterite etc.
In case the screenings are not of crusable type such as moorum or gravel, it is necessary to add bin) Physical requirement: Screening should normally consist of same material as the course aggregate. However,where economic consideration so warrant, non plastic material such as moorum or gravel with LL less than 20 & Plasticity index 6 may be used. Fraction passing 75 micron should not exceed 10%.

The binding material: Binding materials may not be necessary if the screenings used are of crushable type. Used as a filler material shall comprise of a suitable material approved by the Engineer-In-Charge having plasticity index of value ;less than 6 for subbase/base course and 4-10 for surfacing. - Therefore, binding materials should be applied in two or more layer for surfacing and unifrom manner . Generally, the quantity required for 10.00 Sqm of 75 mm thickness of WBM is 0.06 Cum to 0.09 Cum and for 100 mm thickness, the binding materials would be 0.08 Cum to 0.10 Cum.
Grading requirement of Course aggregate for WBM Works ( IS: 2386, Part-5) (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)
Grading No Size Range IS Sieve Designation Percent by Wt passing the IS Sieve
I 90 mm to 45 mm 125 mm 100
90 mm 90-100
63 mm 25-60
45 mm 0-15
22.4 mm 0-5
II 63 mm to 45 mm 90 mm 100
63 mm 90-100
53 mm 25-75
45 mm 0-15
22.4 mm 0-5
III 53 mm to 22.4 mm 63 mm 100
53 mm 90-100
45 mm 65-90
22.4 mm 0-10
11.2 mm 0-5
The compacted thickness for a layer with grading-I shall be 100 mm while for layer with other gradings i.e 2 & 3, it shall be 75 mm
Grading requirement of screening for WBM Works ( IS: 2386, Part-5) (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)
Grading Classification Size of Screenings IS Sieve Designation Percent by Wt passing the IS Sieve
A 13.2 mm 13.2 mm 100
11.2 mm 95-100
5.6 mm 15-35
180 micron 0-10
B 11.2 mm 11.2 mm 100
5.6 mm 90-100
180 micron 15-35
Approximate quantity of course aggregate and screening required for 100/75 mm compacted thickness of water bound maccadam (WBM) subbase/base/surfacing course for 10 Sqm area. (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)
Compacted
thickness (mm) /
Loose Qty(Cum)
Stone Screenings Crushable Screenings such as moorum or gravel
Classification / Size Range(Sqm) Grading classification
& Size
For WMB Subbase/
Base Course
(Loose Qty) Cum
Properties. Loose Qty in Cum
Grading-1 (90 to 45) 100 mm/1.21 to 1.43 Cum Type-A
13.2 mm
0.27 to 0.30 LL < 20%
PI < 6 %

Passing 0.075 mm < 10 %
0.30 to 0.32
Grading-2 (63 to 45) 75 mm/0.91 to 1.07 Cum Type-A
13.2 mm
0.12 to 0.15 ------Do---- 00.22 to 0.24
Grading-2 (63 to 45) 75 mm/0.91 to 1.07 Cum Type-B
11.2 mm
0.20 to 0.22 ------Do---- ------Do----
Grading-3 (53 to 22.4) 75 mm/0.91 to 1.07 Cum Type-B
11.2 mm
0.18 to 0.21 ------Do---- ------Do----
Volumetric Analysys of WBM work
Purpose: The test is conducted to make sure that adequate quantity and composition of material have been used in the construction.
Procedure
Dig a pit 0.50 m x 0.50 m in the area where random checking is to be carried out. Take out all the WBM materials from the Pit. One of the following test to be conducted.
Test-1:Refill the pit with the dug material without compacting. If the pit can be filled by using not more than 65 % of the dug material, it is indicative of adequate compaction and use of specified quantity of all material combine together.
Test-2:
i) Separate the portions of the WBM materials passing and retained on 11.2 mm size sieve when type B screening have been used. When A type screenings have been used, the proportion of WBM materials passing and retained on 13.2 mm size should be determined.
ii) Measure the loose volumes of the two portions using cylinders of known volume and compare the combinded volume with the combinded specified quantities of coarse aggregate screenings+ Binding material.
iii) The volume of materials retain on 11.2 mm size sieve ( or 13.2 mm size sieve, as the case may be) shall be compared with the specified quantity of coarse aggregate viz. 0.912 to 1.07 Cum per 10 sqm for WBM grading 2 & 3. Due allowances shall be made for crushing during rolling.
iv) The material passing on 11.2 mm size sieve ( or 13.2 mm size sieve, as the case may be) shall be compared with the specified quantity of stone screenings and binding materials or crushable screenings as the case may be.
v) For the coarse aggregate, the qty may be check by conducting an aggregate impact test and determining the presence of any over sized aggregate.
vi) For the Finer fraction passing 425 micron size sieve , the plasticity Index shall be determined to check that it is less 6.
D.3 Granular Sub bse (GSB) (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)
Material: Natural sand, moorum, gravel, crushed stone, crushed slag, brick metal, Kankar or a combination thereof and it shall conform grading requirement.
The subbase material should be spread in layers not execeding 100 mm compacted thickness. It vibratory roller is used, the compacted thickness of layer can be upto a max of 225 mm

When subbase materials consist of a combunation of materials, mixing shall be done mechanically by mix-in-place method.Moisture content of the loose material shall be checked in accordance with IS: 2720 (Part-2)

Compaction should be carried out at OMC, with tolerance limit of plus minus 2 %. Each layer should be compacted to 100 % maximum dry density as per prescribed standard Proctor Test IS 2720 ( Part-7)
Grading for Granular Subbase materials
IS Sieve Designation Percentage by weight passing the sieve Remarks
Grading-I Grading-II Grading-III
75 mm 100 ------ .----- Note:
1: The material passing 425 micron (0.425 mm) sieve for all the three gradings when tested according to IS: 2720 (Part-5) shall have Liquid limit and plasticity index not more than 25 & 6 percent respectively.
2) On clayey subgrade, the percent passing IS Sieve 0.075 mm shall not exceed 5
3) The wet aggregate impact value (IS: 5640) shall not exceed 50
4) The material to be used in the subgrade shall have minimum soaked CBR value 20 CBR value not less than 15 can be permitted with the approval of the competent authority.
53 mm ----- 100 .------
26.5 mm 55-75 50-80 100
9.5 mm ------ ------ -----
4.75 mm 10-30 15-35 25-45
2.36 mm ----- ----- ------
0.425 mm ----- ------ -------
0.075 mm < 10 < 10 < 10
D.4 Composition of Bituminious Macadam (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)
IS Sieve Percent Passing by weight of Total Aggregate Remarks
26.5 100 Note:
For Condition in cooler area of india or where the percent passing 0.075 mm sieve is on higher side of the range, appropriate bitumen contents may be upto 0.5 percent higher, subject to approval of the Engineer
19 90-100
13.2 56-88
4.75 16-36
2.36 4-19
0.03 2-10
0.075 0-5
Bitumen content % by weight of Total Mixture 3.3 to 3.5
Bitumen Penetration Grade 35 to 90
D.5 20 mm thick premix carpet Open Graded Premix Surfacing (MoRTH & MoRD Specifications)
Binder: The binder shall be a penetration grade of bitumen of a suitable grade S-65/90 as specified in contract. IS 73
Field inspection criteria
Quantities of materials required for 10 Sqm area
Aggregate Quantity
a) Nominal size 13.2 mm (Passing 22.4 mm Sieve and retained on 11.2 mm sieve) 0.18 m 3
b) Nominal size 11.2 mm (Passing 13.2 mm Sieve and retained on 5.6 mm sieve) 0.09 m 3
Total 0.27 m 3
 
Binder Quantity
a) For 0.18 m 3 of 13.2 mm nominal size stone 52 Kg bitumen per m 3 9.5 Kg
a) For 0.09 m 3 of 11.2 mm nominal size stone 56 Kg bitumen per m 3 5.10 Kg
Total 14.60 Kg
Grading requirement for Chips for surface dressing
IS Sieve Designation Cumulative percent by weight of total aggregate passing for the following nominal sizes (mm)
13.2 9.5 6.3
19.00 100 ---- -----
13.20 85-100 100 -----
9.50 0-40 85-100 100
6.30 0-7 0-35 85-100
4.75 ---- 0-10 -----
3.35 ---- ---- 0-35
2.36 0-2 0-2 0-10
0.60 ---- ----- 0-2
0.07 0-1.50 0-1.5 0-1.5
Minimum 65 % by weight of aggregate Passing 13.2 mm,
Retained 9.5 mm
Passing 9.5 mm
Retained 6.3 mm
Passing 6.3 mm
Retained 3.35 mm
NOTE:-
Mixing temperature of Bitumen should be in range of 150 0 C to 163 0 C
Mixing temperature of Aggregate should be in range of 155 0 C to 163 0 C
Provided that the difference between the temperature of aggregate and the binder should not exceed 140C
Binder should be a penetration grade bitumen of a suitable grade of S-65/90 depending on the climatic condition of the area.
Premix carpet using Bitumen Emulsion
The quantities of material required for 20 mm thick premix carpet should be as indicated below
i) Aggregate same as 20 mm carpeting
ii) Binder: Cationic Bitumen Emulsion
a) For 0.18 cum of 13.2 mm nominal size stone at 78 Kg Cationic Bitumen Emulsion per cum 14.00 Kg per 10 Sqm area
a) For 0.09 cum of 11.2 mm nominal size stone at 84 Kg Cationic Bitumen Emulsion per cum 7.50 Kg per 10 Sqm area
Total 21.50 Kg per 10 Sqm area
Binder for premix carpet wearing course shall be bitumen emulsion of Medium Setting (MS) grade complying with IS: 8887 and having a bitumen content of 65 % minimum by weight.
Emulsion for liquid seal coat shall be of RS grade of MS grade where specified. Emulsion for premeix seal coat shall be of SS (Slow Setting) grade.
Seal Coat
Type-A: Liquid seal coat comprising of an application of layer of bituminious binder followed by a cover of stone Chips.
Type-B:Premixed seal coat comprising of a thin applicationn of fine aggregate premixed with bituminious binder
Type-C:Premixed seal coat comprising of an application of 6.7 mm size stone chips premixed with bituminious binder.
Type A Seal coat with bitumen: Apply bitumen with a temperature between 150 0 C and 163 0 C uniformly with a sparayer. Thereafter, spread stone chips over the bitumen layer
Quality control requirements of Seal Coat
a) Quantity of Coarse aggregates & Binders along with Gradation requirement of aggregate for seal coat
Type of Seal Coat Qty of Aggregate required per 10 Sqm area Gradation Requirement of coarse Aggregate Binder Content per 10 Sqm
100 % Passing sieve designation 100 % retained sieve designation Bitumen in Kg Bitumen Emulsion in Kg
Type- A 0.09 Cum 11.2 mm 2.36 mm. 9.8 12 to 14
Type- B 0.06 Cum 2.36 mm 180 microns 6.8 10 to 12
Type- C 0.09 Cum 9.5 mm 2.36 mm. 4.5 % by weight of total mix 9 to 11
D.6 Stone Aggregate for DBM (Clause 507, Table 500-10 MoRTH)
IS Sieve (mm) Grading Requirements (% Passing) Ref. Range Remarks
Grading -I
(40 mm nominal size) Layer Thickness 80-100 mm
Grading -II
(25 mm nominal size) Layer Thickness 50-75 mm
45 100 ----- As per Table 500-10 , The final gradation is within the above limits and not varied from the low limit of one sieve to the high limit of adjacent sieve or vice-versa.
37.5 95-100 100.00
26.5 63-93 90-100
19 ----- 71-95
13.2 55-75 56-80
4.75 38-54 38-54
2.36 ----- 28-54
0.30 7-21 7-21
0.075 2-8 2-8
Minm Bitumen Content % By Weight of Total mix 4.00% 4.50%
Bitumen Grade (Pen) 65 or 90 65 or 90
D.7 Wet Mix Maccadam (WMM) (Section 400, Clause 406 , Table 400-11 of MoRTH)
IS Sieve (mm) Grading Requirements (% Passing) Ref. Range Remarks
53 100 As per Table 400-11 ,The gradation Should be within the above limits and not varied from the low limit of one sieve to the high limit of adjacent sieve or vice-versa .
he materials finer than 425 micron shall have Plasticity Index (PI) not execeding 6.
45 95-100
22.4 60-80
11.2 40-60
4.75 25-40
2.36 15-30
0.60 8-22
0.075 0-8
D.8 Bituminous Concrete Pavement (Section 500, Table 500-18 of MoRTH)
IS Sieve (mm) Grading Requirements (% Passing) Ref. Range Remarks
Grading-I, Nominal Size 13 mm,
Layer Thickness 35 - 40 mm
Grading-II, Nominal Size 10 mm,
Layer Thickness 25 - 30 mm
26.5 100.00 ----- The Combined Aggregate grading shall not vary from the low limit of one sieve to the high limit of adjacent sieve.
19 79-100 100.00
13.20 59-79 79-100
9.50 52-72 70-88
4.75 35-55 53-71
2.36 28-44 42-58
1.18 20-34 34-48
0.60 15-27 26-38
0.30 10-20 18-28
0.15 5-13 12-20
0.075 2-8 4-10
Minm Bitumen Content % By Weight of Total mix 5.0 - 6.0 5.0 -7.0  
Bitumen Grade (Pen) 65.00 65*  
D.9 Grouting Work
Clause 1904.2.2 of MoRD Specification : All materials used for the pot- hole and patch repairing of bituminious Surface and underlying layers shall be in accordance with these Specifications and shall be of the same type as specified for the original construction or higher.
D.10 Horizontal Alignment
Purpose: It is necessary to check the the horizontal alignment to ensure that the work is set out in accordance with the approved drawings and dimensions.
Locations on Road Permitted Tollerence
In Plain and Rolling Terrain In Hilly terrain
Edges of carriage way. Plus minus 20 mm Plus minus 30 mm
Edges of road way and lower layer of pavement Plus minus 30 mm Plus minus 50 mm
E. BRICKS
Classification and quality of Bricks ( Ref IS: 1077 : 1992)
Class Designation Compressive Strength not Less than ( N/mm2)
(approx )
Remarks
35 35.00 As per specification of work, compressive strength of 1st class and 2nd class brick are 105 Kg/ Cm 2 ,75 Kg/ Cm 2

Water Absorption
The bricks, when tested in accordance with the procedure laid down in IS 3495 ( Part 2) : 1992 after immersion in cold water for 24 hours, water absorption shall not be more than 20 percent by weight up to class 12'5 and 15 percent by weight for higher classes
30 30.00
25 25.00
20.0 20.00
17.5 17.50
15.0 15.00
12.5 12.50
10.0 10.00
7.5 7.50
5.0 5.00
3.5 3.50
As per specification of building work, SoR 2017,Building work, the requiremrnt of bricks shall be as follows
Type of Bricks Dimension (in mm)
(Length x Breadth x Depth)
Minimum Compressive Strength Water Absorption (max)
Actual Nominal Tolerance
1 st Class 250x120x70 255x123x72 plus minus 3 105 Kg/ cm 2 20 % by weight
2 nd Class 250x120x70 255x123x72 plus minus 5 75 Kg/ cm 2 25 % by weight
Efflorescence of Bricks
Nil - When there is no perceptible deposit of efflorescence.
Slight - When not more than 10 percent of the exposed area of the brick is covered with a thin deposit of salts.
Moderate - When there is a heavier deposit than under ‘slight’ and covering up to 50 percent of the exposed area of the brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the surface.
Heavy - When there is a heavy deposit of salts covering 50 percent or more of the exposed area of the brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the surface.
Serious - When there is a heavy deposit of salts accompanied by powdering and/or flaking of the exposed surfaces.
F. CONCRETING WORKS
F.1 Criteria of Graded Course aggregate for Concrete works ( Clause 4.1 and 4.2 of IS 383:1970)
Gradation analysis
IS Sieve Designation Percentage passing for graded aggregate of nominal size
40 mm 20 mm 16 mm 12.5 mm
80 mm 100 ----- ----- -----
63 mm ----- ----- ----- -----
40 mm 95-100 100    
20 mm 30-70 95-100 100 100
16mm ------ ------ 90-100 ------
12.5 mm ------ ------ ------ 90-100
10 mm 10-35 25-55 30-70 40-85
4.75 mm 0-5 0-10 0-10 0-10
2.36 mm ----- ----- ----- -----
F.2 Criteria of Fine aggregate for Building works (Clause 4.3 of IS 383:1970) Sieve Analysis
IS Sieve Designation Percentage passing for Remarks
   
 Grading Zone-IV Grading Zone-I Grading Zone-II Grading Zone-III
10 mm 100 100 100 100 (Clause 4.3 of IS 383:1970)
4.75 mm 90-100 90-100 90-100 95-100
2.36 mm 60-95 75-100 85-100 95-100
1.18 mm 30-70 55-90 75-100 90-100
600 micron 15-34 35-59 60-79 80-100
300 micron 5-20 8-30 12-40 15-50
150 micron 0-10 0-10 0-10 0-15
         
F.3 Permissible Limit of Cement test Result (Ref. IS:8112 & IS:269)
Items of Test Permissible Limit (Ref. IS:8112 & IS:269) Remarks
1. Initial Setting time Minm 30 minutes (Ref. IS:8112 & IS:269)
2. Final Setting time Maxm 600 minutes
3. Soundness (Le Chatelier Method) Maximum 10mm
4. Fineness (Sieving Method) Maximum 10 %
F.4 Concrete Cube
METHODS OF TESTS FOR STRENGTH OF CONCRETES : IS 516 : 1959 : Procedure for making and curing compression test specimens of concrete. Tests for the determination of compressive strength.
Frequency of Sampling (As per IS 456 2000)

Sampling Procedure A random sampling procedure shall be adopted to ensure that each concrete batch shall have a reasonable chance of being tested that is, the sampling should be spread over the entire period of concreting and cover all mixing units.
Frequency The minimum frequency of sampling of concrete of each grade shall be in accordance with the following:
Quantity of Concrete Work, m3 Number of Samples
1- 5 1
6- 15 2
16- 30 3
31-50 4
51 and above 4 plus one additional sample for each additional 50 m3 or part thereof

NOTE- At least one sample shall be taken from each Shift.Where concrete is produced at continuous production unit, such as ready-mixed concrete plant, frequency of ’sampling may be agreed upon mutually by suppliers and purchasers.
Test Specimen
Three test specimens shall be made for each samplefor testing at 28 days. Additional samples may be required for various purposes such as to determine the strength of concrete at 7 days or at the time of striking the formwork, or to determine the duration of curing, or to check the testing error. Additional samples may also be required for testing samples cured by accelerated methods as described in IS 9103. The specimen shall be tested as described in IS 516.
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (As Per IS 456: 2000)
Compressive Strength, the concrete shall be deemed to comply with the strength requirements when both the following condition are met:
a) The mean strength determined from any group of four consecutive test results compiles with the appropriate limits in col 2 of Table 11.
b) Any individual test result complies with the appropriate limits in col 3 of Table 11.
Testing In case of doubt regarding the grade of concrete or results of cube strength tests (As per IS 456: 2000)
In case of doubt regarding the grade of concrete used,either due to poor workmanship or based on results of cube strength tests, compressive strength tests of concrete on the basis of Core Test and/or Load test may be carried out.
Core Test : The points from which cores are to be taken and the number of cores required shall be at the discretion of the engineer-in-charge and shall be representative of the whole of concrete concerned.In no case, however, shall fewer than three cores be tested. Cores shall be prepared and tested as described in IS 516.
Concrete in the member represented by a core test shall be considered acceptable if the average equivalent cube strength of thecores is equal to at least 85 percent of the cube strength of the grade of concrete specified for the corresponding age and no individual core has a strength less than 75 percent.
Load Test : In case the core test results do not satisfy the requirements or where such tests have not been done, Load Test may be resorted. Load Tests for Flexural Members, Members Other Than Flexural Members.

Load Tests for Flexural Members
The structure should be subjected to a load equal to full dead load of the structure plus 1.25 times the imposed load for a period of 24 h and then the imposed load shall be removed.
The deflection due to imposed load only shall be recorded. If within 24 h of removal of the imposed load the structure does not recover at least 75 percent of the deflection under superimposed load, the test may be repeated after a lapse of 72 h. If the recovery is less than 80 percent, the structure shall be deemed to be unacceptable.
If the maximum deflection in mm, shown during 24 h under load is less than 40L2/D, where L is the effective span in m; and D, the overall depth of the section in mm, it is not necessary for the recovery to be measured.
Non-destructive Tests
Non-destructive tests are used to obtain estimation of the properties of concrete in the structure. The methods adopted include ultrasonic pulse velocity [see IS 133 11 (Part l)] and rebound hammer [IS 13311 (Part 2)], probe penetration, pullout and maturity. Nondestructive tests provide alternatives to core tests for estimating the strength of concrete in a structure, or can supplement the data obtained from a limited number of cores. These methods are based on measuring a concrete property that bears some relationship to strength. The accuracy of these methods, in part, is determined by the degree of correlation between strength and the physical quality measured by the non-destructive tests.
Any of these methods may be adopted, in which case the acceptance criteria shall be agreed upon prior to testing.
         
G. General Construction in Steel
IS:800-1984 : This code applies to general construction in steel. Specific provisions for bridges, chimneys, cranes, tanks, transmission line towers, storage structures, tubular structures and structures using cold formed light gauge sections, etc, are covered in separate codes.
The provisions of this code generally .apply to riveted, bolted and welded constructions, using hot rolled steel sections.
This code gives only general guidance as regards the various loads to be considered in design , For actual loads to be used reference may be made to IS : 875-1964.
H. REINFORCEMENT
IS:1786 - 1985 : This standard covers the requirements of deformed steel bars and wires for use as reinforcement in concrete, in the following three strength grades: a) Fe 415, b) Fe 500, and c) Fe 550.
Note:- The figures following the symbol Fe indicates the specified minimum 0.20 Percent proof stress or yield stress in N/mm2.
I. Mix Design of Concrete (As per IS :10262-2009)
This standard provides the guidelines for proportioning concrete mixes as per the requirements using the concrete making materials including other supplementary materials identified for this purpose. The proportioning is carried out to achieve specified characteristics at specified age, workability of fresh concrete and durability requirements .
This standard is applicable for ordinary and standard concrete grades only. All requirements of IS:456-2000 in so far as they apply, shall be deemed to form part of this standard.
The following data are required for mix proportioning of a particular grade of concrete:
a) Grade designation
b) Type of cement
c) Maximum nominal size of aggregate
d) Minimum cement content
e) Maximum water-cement ratio
f) Workability
g) Exposure conditions as per Table 4 and Table 5 of IS : 456-2000
h) Maximum temperature of concrete at the time of placing
j) Method of transporting and placing;
k) Early age strength requirements, if required:
l) Type of aggregate
m) Maximum cement content; and
n) Whether an admixture shall or shall not used and the type of admixture and the condition of use.

 

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